Friday, March 18, 2005


In architecture, continuation of the aisled spaces on either side of the nave (central part of the church) around the apse (semicircular projection at the east end of the church) or chancel (east end of the church where the main altar stands) to form a continuous processional way. The ambulatory often provided improved sites for the numerous altars for saints, which formerly

Wednesday, March 16, 2005

Biblical Literature, Redaction criticism

Redaction criticism concentrates on the end product, studying the way in which the final authors or editors used the traditional material that they received and the special purpose that each had in view in incorporating this material into his literary composition. It has led of late to important conclusions about the respective outlooks and aims of Matthew,

Monday, March 14, 2005


Swedish  Smörgåsbord,   in Swedish cuisine, buffet offering a variety of fish, cheeses, and hot and cold dishes. In the country districts of Sweden, it was customary for guests to contribute to the fare at large gatherings. The foods were set out on long tables from which the diners helped themselves. By the 18th century, festive meals were preceded by appetizers from a bannvinsbord, offering aquavit,

Saturday, March 12, 2005

Hadi, Al-

Al-Hadi's persecution of the 'Alids, representatives of the Shi'ite sect of Islam, precipitated revolts in Medina, Egypt, and Iraq, all of which were put down brutally. Throughout his short reign, he struggled with the question of succession, attempting to annul the rights of his brother, Harun ar-Rashid, who was later to become one of the

Thursday, March 10, 2005


Probably the oldest of the Muslim mystic (Sufi) orders, founded by the Hanbali theologian 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (1078–1166) in Baghdad. Al-Jilani may have intended the few rituals he prescribed to extend only to his small circle of followers, but his sons broadened this community into an order and encouraged its spread into North Africa, Central Asia, and India. The order, which stresses philanthropy,

Tuesday, March 08, 2005

San Blas

Traditional region, eastern Panama, stretching about 100 miles (160 km) along the Caribbean Sea from the Colombian border to the Gulf of San Blas. The narrow strip of land includes the San Blas (formerly Mulatas) Archipelago. Agriculture—chiefly coconuts, yams, and plantains—and fishing are the principal economic activities in San Blas. The population consists largely of

Monday, March 07, 2005

Malar, Lake

Swedish  Mälaren,  lake in eastern Sweden, located just west of Stockholm, which lies at the lake's junction with Salt Bay, an arm of the Baltic Sea. At one time Lake Malar was a bay of the Baltic, and seagoing vessels using it were able to sail far into the interior of Sweden. Because of movements of the Earth's crust, however, the rock barrier at the mouth of the bay had become so shallow by about